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The Pegasus Galaxy is a dwarf galaxy in the fictional Stargate universe. The science fiction series Stargate Atlantis takes place in this galaxy.

In reality, there are two galaxies in the Local Group called Pegasus Dwarf, the Pegasus Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy and the Pegasus Dwarf Irregular Galaxy. It has not been explicitly stated which of these is the galaxy in the Stargate universe. However, in this discussion regarding the new

McKay-Carter Intergalactic Gate Bridge, General Hank Landry states that the distance between the Pegasus and Milky Way galaxies is "three million light-years," suggesting that the series takes place in the Pegasus Dwarf Irregular Galaxy.
Several million years ago, some Ancients, the builders of the Stargate network, fled Earth to settle in the Pegasus Galaxy in the Ancient City Ship Atlantis. The exact reasons for this have yet to be revealed, but Daniel Jackson has speculated the Ancients fled to escape a devastating plague that was destroying their race. This plague was remarkably similar to the so-called Prior plague, which may suggest the Ori were responsible.

For millions of years the Ancients, or Lanteans as they became known in the Pegasus Galaxy, spread human life and prosperity throughout Pegasus, just like they had previously done in the Milky Way. They also established a vast network of Stargates on over a thousand planets, similar to the ones in the Milky Way. However, the two gate systems were incompatible, and thus unable to dial between each other without a specific control crystal interfaced with the DHD.

For some time, their empire flourished, until they stumbled upon a world where the Wraith slept. The Wraith possessed technology and knowledge that rivaled that of the Ancients, and moved as a great scourge across the galaxy, feeding upon the life-force of the human populated worlds. The Ancients tried to fight the scourge, and although the Ancients' technology was significantly more advanced, the sheer numbers of the Wraith forced the Ancients into submission.

After a war that lasted several centuries, the Ancients had lost most of their empire to the Wraith, and were forced to retreat back to their great city of Atlantis. There, they remained besieged for many years, submerged in the ocean to protect the city from Wraith weaponry. At that point, all other Ancients in the Pegasus Galaxy had all ready been killed or had ascended. Eventually the Ancients in Atlantis realized the war with the Wraith had been lost, and returned to Earth via the single Stargate in the Pegasus Galaxy capable of making the connection. However, they had hopes that their descendants would eventually discover Atlantis.

For the next 10,000 years the Wraith plundered the Pegasus Galaxy, feeding off the humans originally seeded by the Ancients, and periodically taking intervals for hibernation. Many planets are totally wiped out, while others are used like breeding pens, being periodically revisited by the Wraith, on feeding expeditions (cullings).

After Daniel Jackson found the gate address to the lost city of the Ancients at the Ancient outpost in Antarctica, on Earth, the Tau'ri sent an expedition to the Pegasus Galaxy, where they discovered the city of Atlantis in perfect condition. Unable to return to their own Galaxy, the expedition was forced to take up residence in the city. However, during an attempt to discover new ZPM's to replace the depleted ones on Atlantis, the expedition came in contact with the Wraith, accidentally interrupting their hibernation cycle prematurely.

Hive by hive began to awaken, again feeding on the human worlds with barely enough "live stock" to sustain the entire species.  During the first encounter between the Wraith and the Atlantis expedition, the Wraith had learned about the existence of Earth and the Milky Way, a rich new feeding ground with billions of humans. However, the Wraith were unable to deduce the exact location or a way to get there, and are still menacing the Atlantis expedition to discover the information.

However, with the galaxy's inadequate amount of humans to sustain their entire population, Wraith factions began to form to gain access to the sparse feeding grounds. Eventually, the factions began to fight each other over the inadequate food supply, with stronger groups attacking the weak. Soon, the conflict erupted into a full-scale civil war, offering hope to the humans living in the Pegasus Galaxy.